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Sanford Radiography Program:


Didactic course descriptions (in alphabetical order)

Advanced Procedures

During this class, students will study various techniques to aid in radiographing children. Age appropriate methods for radiography, communication, proper technique, radiation protection methods, and immobilizing children will be taught. This course also offers a review of basic positioning of specific areas of the body. A study of the non-routine procedures relating to specialized examinations for each body part will also be included. The student will gain a better understanding of special exams such as biliary duct procedures, hysterosalpingography, orthoroentgenography, arthrography, myelography. and conventional tomography. Instruction will include reasons for doing exams, how they are performed, and the projections used for many exams. Angiography, interventional, and noninterventional procedures will be discussed.
Prerequisite: Radiographic Procedures

Anatomy and Physiology

This course is the study of the body structure including size, shape, composition and also how the body functions. We will cover the organ systems from simplest to most complex that make up an individual person. We will also cover the function of each system. During this course the student will learn the proper terminology to describe the location of body parts with respect to one another. This course includes the study of body cavities, membranes, and organs within each cavity.
Prerequisite: College A & P

Digital Radiography and PACS

This course will assist the junior student’s understanding of how digital imaging works and how they can improve the patient’s care with better imaging techniques. This course will give  the student a basic understanding of how digital (CR and DR) images are created and captured, pre- and post-processing techniques, storage of images, the display systems and electronic images, and the difference between CR and DR in the clinical use.
Prerequisite: None

Image Analysis I

This course is designed to give the first year student a basic understanding of acceptable and unacceptable images. We will cover the anatomy and positioning of images. They will also learn to identify the projection/position as they look at each image. Image Analysis is the terminal point in the radiographic process, and therefore relates and integrates with all other courses, especially Radiographic Procedures.
Prerequisite: None

Image Analysis II

Upon completion of this course, the student will be able to recognize the difference between technically acceptable and unacceptable quality of radiographic images and will be able to make adjustments in technical factors and positioning. The student will also learn image evaluation criteria for many different projections. Image Analysis II is taught concurrently with Pediatric Radiography, Advanced Procedures, and Trauma.
Prerequisites: Radiographic Procedures and Imaging Analysis I

Imaging Equipment

This course is an in-depth exploration of the x-ray equipment and its functions. A study of the x-ray machine as a whole, and also its parts individually, will be discussed. Topics covered include imaging systems, the x-ray tube, beam-restricting devices, fluoroscopy (including viewing and recording systems), and AEC devices.
Prerequisites: Radiologic Sciences

Introduction to Specialized Imaging

This course does not involve any classroom hours. This course is for senior students in radiography. During their junior year, students are given a brief look into specialized imaging by observing in the departments of CT, Ultrasound, Nuclear Medicine, Radiation Therapy and MRI. As a senior student, they are given the opportunity to select one specialized imaging area to return for two weeks. Also, every senior student will have a two-week clinical rotation in Computed Tomography (CT) and a one-week rotation in Cardiac Cath Lab. It is at the beginning of their senior year, when students must complete Clinical Education Modules (CEMs) for each imaging area.
Prerequisites: Patient Care, two-day clinical rotations in the specialty areas as a junior student

Medical Terminology

For radiographers to function intelligently and interact effectively with health professionals in the clinical environment, they must be able to read, write, and speak the medical language. The intent of this course is to introduce the student to commonly used medical words so that they may become more familiar with these medical words as they read them in patient charts, on patient exam requests, or hear them used in the healthcare setting.
Prerequisite: None


This course involves the study of abnormal changes in the function or structure within the body. We will cover the signs and/or symptoms of diseases, their causes, and the radiographic appearance of certain diseases. Students will learn the role of the radiographer in imaging the changes in normal anatomy and tissue brought on by disease. The course involves studying many different diseases with which a radiographer must become familiar.
Prerequisite: Imaging Analysis I

Patient Care

This course is to introduce the junior radiography student to certain procedures, methods, techniques and equipment used for the general care of patients. The student will learn the importance of history taking and how to interact professionally and appropriately with all age groups. This course will cover basic transfer and immobilization techniques. Students will also learn about many of the common drugs, along with the different types of contrast media, and their functions. The course covers what to do in a medical emergency and what drugs are commonly found in a crash cart. Included in the course is the study of aseptic and nonaseptic techniques. The student will also learn about ethical and legal issues of Radiology, and medical law in the health care profession.

Principles of Exposure

Principles of exposure introduces the subject of radiographic image quality, describing principles that contribute to the sharpness and visibility of the recorded image. Each factor is examined separately, with emphasis on calculating its effects through the use of the appropriate formulas and their practical applications. Upon completion of the course, the student will be able to employ technical factors, use accessory items such as grids and screens, and have the knowledge to obtain optimum radiographic results.
Prerequisites: None

Radiation Protection and Biology

This course includes methods of radiation protection including the different types of devices available. Students will study the biological effects of radiation, including short-term and long-term effects. Students will learn how to minimize exposure to the patient, themselves, and others. The course includes studying the rationale for shielding, the purpose of beam restriction, and the effects of filtration, both inherent and compensating. Sources of radiation will be taught along with maximum permissible dosages, both public and occupational as recommended by the NCRP. Students will learn about personnel monitoring and its proper uses, and survey meters. The student will also learn about the different units of measurement involved with radiation, and the basics of ALARA.
Prerequisites: Principles of Exposure, College A & P

Radiographic Procedures

This course includes a step-by-step process into teaching the student to take radiographs on actual patients. This course goes hand in hand with Clinical Education I and II by learning in the classroom, Lab, and performing examinations on actual patients. Students start by learning in the classroom about specific body anatomy, then studying the positions and projections necessary to take each specific radiograph. Students will learn various anatomical parts and routine projections by studying the skeleton, bones, drawings and radiographs in addition to hands on learning in the clinical setting.

Radiologic Science

This course provides the student with an understanding of the principles involved in x-ray production. Included in this course is the study of radiation units, atoms, atomic structure, electromagnetic radiation, magnetism and electricity. The student will learn the interactions that occur at the anode and are involved during x-ray production. The student of beam quality and quantity are included. The course also includes the study of the interactions between x-ray and matter, and the attenuation of tissue and the factors that affect it.
Prerequisite: Principles of Exposures

Registry Review

This course is a review of information taught throughout the two years in the program. It prepares the student to take the national board examination offered by the ARRT. This course begins in March of the senior year, just before graduation.
Prerequisites: majority of all courses

Trauma and Mobile Radiography

This course will prepare the student in handling trauma patients and how to radiograph them as quickly and as easily as possible. The student will also learn how to radiograph patients within the surgical setting. Our goal is to produce quality images with the least amount of discomfort to the patient. This course also teaches the student to use props (sponges, sandbags, etc.), tube tilt and IR placement to obtain projections without moving the trauma patient. The student will learn about vital signs, be able to recognize a patient in distress, and will learn how to deal with emergency situations.
Prerequisites: Patient Care and Radiographic Procedures


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